General assumptions in psychotherapy and their implications on the problems formation concept and dealing with them Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, Segal, Hoebel, & Deardorff, 1975); (Soroka, 1993)

 Any theory in psychotherapy is necessarily a set of assumptions. Treatment without a theory means that the assumptions are not visible or not spoken openly. Assumptions dictate to us what we should do or not to do with people facing treatment

For example, once was believed that deviant or abnormal behavior was associated with the takeover of ghosts and spirits on a person’s body. So, “treatment” was by exorcism or religious ceremonies that rested on the assumption that through exorcism demons release the person of evil spirits

Today the dominant view, based on Freud’s basic concept is that deviant behavior is an outcome of an inner conflict between impulses, “not aware” of human thoughts (Id), and his high valued “cognitive” thoughts (Super  Ego).  The treatment methods, tailored to this concept, try to bring on the surface the patient’s hidden drives and impulses so he can master them by getting insight into the motives behind the hidden drives and impulses that cause the problems

These examples reflect a point, outside of time, which we do not see

The first is that the therapist’s help is based on assumptions (theories) in relation to human behavior and problems

For example, the exorcist mentioned above probably will not handle ‘worried’ customers by work on the relationship between “patient” and his family. He did not take care of customers anxiously soft and loving. If someone could go back and confront the exorcist with alternative methods for the treatment he had no doubt respond with suspicion, confusion, perhaps confused, believing his assumptions are “truths

Second, and more important, while the positive assumptions (“do”) are partly internal (can not be appealed), the negative assumptions (“need not to do”) are almost always (internal) and internal (given) is not open to questions

It is very easy to see those beliefs were only “truths”. Very difficult to see more modern ideas,  such as psychoanalysis as they are only beliefs or theories. Difficult of all to take seriously that all theories about human issues – exorcism of demons, psychoanalysis, Gestalt, behaviorism, short-term therapy, or any other approach – are just a system of beliefs, perceptions used by an individual to organize his observations and behaviors.